CHAPTER ONE Form and Fundamental Pillars of the State

Article 1 Name and Form of the State

Libya is a free, independent, and indivisible state. It shall not relinquish any part of its sovereignty nor its territory. It shall henceforth be called the Libyan Republic.

Article 2 The Capital

Article 3 The Borders of the State

The borders of the Libyan Republic are:

North: The Mediterranean Sea. South: Sudan, Chad, and Niger. East: Egypt and Sudan. West: Tunisia and Algeria.

Article 4 The State Flag

 

The shape and dimensions of the State flag will be as follows: its length shall double that of its width and shall be divided into three parallel colors, the top of which is red, followed by black, followed by green. The area of the black color shall equal the total area of the two other colors, which are equal in area. In the center of the flag shall be a white crescent and between its two ends shall be a white, five-pointed star. Its provisions shall be regulated by law.

Article 5 The National Anthem

The National Anthem shall be the independence anthem (“Ya Beladi” or “Oh My Country”) and a law shall regulate this.

Article 6 The State Emblem

The State Emblem, medals, and insignia, and its official holidays shall be determined by law.

Article 7 Source of Legislation

Islam shall be the religion of the state and Islamic Sharia shall be the source of legislation in accordance with the recognized doctrines and interpretations without being bound to a particular jurisprudential opinion on discretionary matters. The provisions of the constitution shall be interpreted and bound in accordance with this.

Article 8 Citizenship

Male and female citizens shall be equal in and before the law. There shall be no discrimination between them by way of diminishing, restricting, or depriving [of rights] in accordance with the provisions of this constitution.

Article 9 Political System

The political system shall be based on the principles of political pluralism, peaceful rotation of power, separation of powers, and balance and integration of powers on the basis of good governance predicated on transparency, oversight, and accountability.

Article 10 Defending the State

Every citizen, male and female, shall defend the state, its unity, and its independence.

Article 11 Nationality

  1. Every person who acquired Libyan citizenship in accordance with the provisions of the Libyan Constitution issued on 7 October 1951 and the laws passed thereunder shall be Libyan.
  2. Every person born to a Libyan father shall be Libyan.
  3. Every person who acquired Libyan citizenship afterward under the applicable law shall be Libyan.
  4. Libyan nationality may be combined with another nationality; however, a Libyan who carries another nationality or who is naturalized may not assume the following posts:

a. President of the Republic.

b. Membership of the legislative and judicial authorities.

c. Prime Minister, ministers, and deputy ministers.

d. Governor of the Libyan Central Bank and his deputy.

e. Representatives of diplomatic and consular missions.

f. Command of the General and Qualitative staff of the army.

g. Administration of the Military Intelligence Service, Intelligence Service, General Investigations, Passports, Customs, and Public Security.

h. Administration of independent constitutional bodies.

i. Administration of the Civil Register.

j. Any other job stipulated by law in accordance with the considerations of the higher interest of the state.

Article 12 Revoking and Withdrawing Nationality

Libyan nationality shall not be revoked for any reason. It is permissible to withdraw it from those who have acquired it within the 20 years following its acquisition. The law shall explain cases of withdrawal and its effects.

Article 13 Acquiring Nationality

  1. The regulatory law granting nationality must take into consideration national interest, maintaining the demographic structure, and the ease of integration into Libyan society.
  2. One of the conditions for granting nationality shall be legal entry and uninterrupted legal residence for a period no less than 20 years.
  3. Priority in granting nationality shall be given to the children of Libyan women, the foreigner who is married to a Libyan woman, the foreigner who is married to a Libyan man, and those who have rare and special expertise. This shall be regulated by law.

Article (14)International relations

1- The State’s relations are based on the principle of good neighborliness and non-interference in other States’ internal affairs and on common interests and settlement of disputes by peaceful means.

Article (15)Foreign Policy

The foreign policy is based on the State’s independence and sovereignty and guarantee of its national interests. It encourages building friendly relations with other States and cooperation with regional and international
organizations within the rules of international law.

Article (16)International treaties and conventions

The  State  is  bound  by  ratified  International  treaties  and  conventions  whichget a position that is higher than laws but lower than Constitution. The Stateshould  take  all  necessary  steps  to  implement  them  without  violating  thisConstitution’s provisions.

Article (17)Political Asylum

Political  asylum  is  granted  by  the  State  and  it  is  prohibited  to  deliver
political   refugees.   Conditions   and   situations   of   political   asylum   are
organized by a law.

Article (18)Cornerstones of the economy

It is up to the State to establish a diversified economy to achieve prosperityand  well-being  and  to  raise  the  standard  of  living,  basing  the  economy  onthe  criteria  of  transparency,  quality,  accountability  and  balance  betweeneconomic   efficiency   and   social   justice   and   on   competitiveness   andpreservation  of  consumer  and  producer  rights.  The  State  supports  andstimulates the private sector.

Article (19)Investment

The  State  works  on  encouraging  private,    public  and  joint  investment  tomeet the needs of the society and ensure comprehensive development.

Article (20)Equality of Opportunities

The equality of opportunities is a right for all citizens and the State shouldtake necessary measures to ensure it.

Article (21)Environment

Protection of Environment, its integrity and development are a commitmentof the State and all persons residing on its territory as well as the transients.The State takes the necessary measures to protect and preserve its elementsand  components  against  pollution  and  to  conserve  the  natural  and  vitaldiversity.  It  is  prohibited  to  enter  nuclear,  toxic  and  radioactive  wastes.  Aspecial  law  regulates  the  use,  circulation,  transfer,  stockpiling  of  toxic  anddangerous  substances  and  any  other  substances  which  might  be  harmful  toEnvironment.
The  judicial  proceedings  on  the  safety  of  Environment  are  considered  aspublic right claims without judicial charges, and the crimes relating theretoare not subject to the statute of limitations.

Article (22)Agriculture, Industry and Tourism

Agriculture,  industry  and  tourism  are  basic  pillars  of  the  national  economy.The  State  works  on  enacting  legislation  and  taking  the  necessary  measuresfor their support, encouragement, development and protection.

 

Article (23)Public Money

Public money is inviolable and may not be seized. The State has to protect itand ensure its development and preservation. It is prohibited to touch it ordeal  with  it  in  contravention  of  provisions  of  the  Constitution  and  the  law.The  State  guarantees  its  recovery  and  claim  of  its  compensation  whendestructed  or  damaged.  Crimes  related  thereto  may  not  be  subject  to  thestatute of limitations and may not be amnestied.

 

Article (24)Management of public facilities

The  public  facilities  are  managed  according  to  the  standards  of  goodgovernance  and  respect  for  human  rights.  They  guarantee  the  right  ofbeneficiaries to receive services on a regular, sustained and equitable basisand  to  impartially  deal  with  their  affairs  and  receive  their  petitions  andclaims  and  to  respond  to  them,  and  they  are  committed  to  explain  thereasons  of  their  resolutions,  to  streamline  their  procedures  and  to  makeperiodic evaluations of their performance as defined in law.

 

Article (25)Social Justice and Development

The  authorities  of  the  State  ensure  the  rehabilitation  of  villages  and  citieson basis of social justice and sustainable and balanced development with itsindicators  beside  the  rational  exploitation  of  wealth.  They  also  ensure  fairdistribution  of  services  and  balanced  development  projects,  in  accordancewith  the  available  resources,  and  take  the  necessary  steps  to  encourageinvestment and activities where appropriate.

 

Article (26)Fight against corruption

The State shall take the necessary measures to combat corruption in publicand private sectors. The State ensures the protection of the public servicesand the public and private money. It is prohibited for anyone who getssentenced for a corruption misdemeanor or felony to occupy posts in casesspecified by law.

Article (27)Taxes

Taxation,  tax  exemption  and  modification  are  exclusively  made  by  law. When  levying  taxes,  the  interest  of  the  society  and  the  achievement  ofsocial justice must be taken into account.

Article (28)Zakat

Zakat  is  a  right  and  an  obligation.  The  State  ensures  its  collecting  andspending in its religious uses, and may not be confused with public revenue.

Article (29)Endowments

1- Endowments are inviolable and cannot be mixed with State’s money. It isprohibited  to  manage  them  but  with  an  authorization  from  the  competentcourt within the endowment’s interest and according to Islamic Shariya.

2-    special  body  shall  be  created  to  administer  endowments  and  managetheir affairs and to ensure their control and development in order to attaintheir objectives and legal aims within limits of law.

Article (30)National languages and official language

Languages spoken by a party of Libyan people are considered as nationallanguages and a part of its cultural and linguistic heritage and a commoncapital for all Libyan people. Arabic language is the official State’s language.

Article (31)Family

A family based on legal marriage between a man and a woman is the basis ofthe  society.  its  fundament  is  religion  and  moral  and  complementaritybetween  its  members.  It  is  based  on  cordiality  and  mercy.  State  ensuresprotection  of  family  and  takes  care  of  marriage  and  encourages  it  withprotection   of   motherhood   and   childhood.   State   works   on   reconcilingwoman’s duties and her work.

Article (32)Children and youth

State  takes  care  of  children  and  youth  and  grants  means  to  promote  theircapacities   and   their   active   participation   in   national   life   and   theircontribution to development. It encourages their opening on different fields of science and their profit from human cultures beside their empowermentto  participate  in  political,  social  and  economic  life  with  a  spirit  ofcitizenship and liability.

Article (33)monuments and manuscripts

1- State engages to protect monuments and historic cities and regions and totake care of them, to rehabilitate them and explore them. It is prohibited toassault  them  or  to  trade  in  them  or  present  them  as  gifts.  State  takesnecessary   measures   to   recover   misappropriated   monuments   andmanuscripts.  Crimes  against  them  cannot  be  subject  to  the  statute  oflimitation.

2- State is engaged to preserve manuscripts, documents and historic coins. Itis  prohibited  to  assault  them  and  crimes  related  thereto  cannot  be  subjectto the statute of limitation.

3-  In  case  a  private  property  is  considered  as  a  monument,  the  relationbetween the owners and the State is governed by a special law that ensurestheir legal rights.

Article (34)Housing

1-  State  engages  to  establish  policies  and  national  plans  to  offer  descenthousing  taking  into  account  Libyan  specificities,  so  as  to  ensure  balancebetween  development  rates  and  necessities  of  adequate  distribution  ofpopulation  and  available  resources.  State  takes  into  account  low  incomefamilies  when  establishing  policies  and  encourages  private  sector  andsupports  individual  initiatives.  It  organizes  the  use  of  State’s  land  forpurposes of urbanism so to achieve public interest.

Article (35)Sport

To practice sport, as passion or profession, is a right for each person. Statetakes  necessary  measures  to  support  and  promote  sport  through  buildingadequate sport facilities that fit specific needs of different areas. It ensuresthe  autonomy  of  sport  bodies,  settles  disputes  between  them  according  tointernational standards.

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